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History of Hebron

In 1997, because of many tragic incidents, including a massacre in the Abraham Mosque which killed 29 Muslims and wounded 125, the Hebron Agreement (which was part of the Oslo Accords) divided the city into two parts: Area H-1, with 115,000 Palestinians, which was put under Palestinian control and Area H-2, in which 35,000 Palestinians and 500 settlers live, remained under Israeli security control, with the Palestinian Authority being given only civilian powers. During the Israeli's Operation Defensive Shield, in April 2002, the Israeli military re-entered Area H-1 and has the ability to support the settlers and use force against Palestinian civilians.

The historical role of Gush Emunim, a radical Zionist organization (which was founded in 1974) believes "that the Land of Israel must be in the hands of the Jewish people—not just by having settlements, but that it's under Jewish sovereignty". The original members of the Qiryat Arba settlement in Hebron followed the ideology of Gush Emunim. The basic principle that exists in Hebron and the West Bank is that all land belongs to the "Greater Israel" and any non-Jewish population doesn't exist. This mentality is prevalent in Hebron and according to a B’tselem Report:

Restrictions on Palestinian movement in H2 are among the harshest in the Occupied Territories. The Israeli army imposes curfew on Palestinians of H-2 both in response to violence by Palestinians and violence by settlers. Palestinian residents of H-2 suffer from acts of violence by border policemen and Israeli soldiers. Reports indicate a routine, daily violence by security forces, including beatings, hurling of stun grenades, and theft of money and goods.

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